If we go back in history it’s difficult to specify the advent of this technology or inventor of this technology because its evolution is in parts and it has progressed in different parts from dc battery powered to motors driven vehicles. The first electric vehicle came on roads in 1800s.
During starting years of 18th century few researchers in Hungary, nether land and the USA some people worked on battery powered cars and invented its first type whereas in parallel time period British scientist invented crude electric vehicle .in addition to its successful electric car makes its debut during 1890, a six passenger with a maximum speed of 14 miles/h by William Morrison, and this invention added an interest in e-cars
During mid of the 19th century, French and British researchers built commercial or you can say practical electric cars, and soon after this different investors started to come up with cars manufacturing companies accords USA. NYC had more than 60 taxis by 1900. During next decade it showed great progress on sales scale.
For basic overview of this technical evolution, it’s important to know about the development of vehicles or transport medium during that period. In early 20th century hoarse and camels was still a basic source or transportation but America being developed enough and with strong economy, they wanted to shift towards engine vehicles.
Steam which was the first reliable source of energy to power trains and industry was also used as owner source for cars initially but remain useable till the 1870s. Later it was replaced because it wasn’t very feasible for an individual user in a market as it require a lot of time to get started and thus time even increases more in winters.
Likely to electric vehicles, gasoline-powered car were with combustion engine built internally were introduced in 1800s. These cars need lots of human intervention, manual gears and to start they needed a kick start that was very uncomfortable for many users. In addition to it they were noisier that makes driver uncomfortable.
In opposition to above all demerits electric cars has none of them, these vehicle were easy to drive and they emission were almost negligible. Electric vehicles become popular among user residing in city as they were feasible and were good for use within a city or short drive use. As the availability of electric vehicles increases by 1910s charging of e-cars became easy for users.
Major investors and researchers took notice of increasing demand of electric vehicles and tried to improve the efficiency of current technology. During this decade Ferdinand Porsche developed first hybrid car that was powered by electric as well as gasoline but later Thomas Edison though that electric vehicle are more better to invest technology and he worked to built a better electric car.
Henry Ford was the one who bring revolution in the world of electric vehicles. He launched model that was made easy to access and cheaper for common user. In 1912 gasoline powered are estimated price was $700 were as electric cars were around $1800. the same year a new electric car introduced by Kettering that eliminates the need of hand crank for starting engine giving rise to demand of gasoline powered cars and their sales in market.
Many more factors contribute towards lowering demand of electric vehicles firstly in 1920s after discovery of Texas crude oil gasoline was easy available and gas stations increased and cost gas decreased and a result electric vehicles disappeared in 1935.
Moving forward from 1935 to next thirty years the demand of electric vehicles vanished almost because of recuing cost of petro chemicals and betterment in gasoline-powered engine and there efficiency. But during 1970s the sudden crises in petro chemicals and increase in price of gasoline and Arab oil conflicts made America to think about alternative powered vehicles that can be self-made and powered by their own sources of energy. In this regard a bill was signed for the development and research of electric revivals in America aim 1976 to support research and development of electric vehicles.
In parallel to it, many other big giants and small investors of market looks forward to invest in the market of E-Cars. Even NASA came forward and adds its contribution towards EV by making a lunar rover whish was the first electric powered vehicle on moon for upper space research in 1971.after all this the major turn over in field of electric vehicles was when Toyota Prius was launched by Toyota that was first mass production of electric car in Japan.
On the application of brakes in an Electric Car, The energy that dissipates into heat energy into the surrounding can be reused instead of being wasted. That is what the Regenerative braking system is all about.
The system that recaptures that Kinetic energy and converts that energy into a form of electrical energy to recharge the batteries of and Electric car that system is called Regenerative braking system.
This system can be used even in hybrid electric vehicles and also in fully in electric vehicles too.
The other relevant event was in 2006 when Silicon Valley startup, Tesla Motors has started leading electric vehicles industry.
After all this increase in demand of electric vehicles there is a need to improve these vehicles as far as technology is a concern if we want to make it effective and totally affordable for every individual user.
In market there is a variety of batteries available that can be used in electric cars but sodium sulphur batteries comes closest as far as cost and durability is concern.in addition to battery concern it is important to develop lightweight cars with efficient low power consuming induction motor, power electronic drive system (solid state devices) and microcontrollers.